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Haplogroup G formed approximately 50,000 years ago as a side lineage of haplogroup IJK, but seems to have had a slow start, evolving in isolation for tens of thousands of years, possibly in the Near East, cut off from the wave of colonisation of Eurasia.
As of late 2016, there were 303 mutations (SNPs) defining haplogroup G, confirming that this paternal lineage experienced a severe bottleneck before splitting into haplogroups G1 and G2.
This technique probably raised the level of standardization and predictability in stone technology.
By the beginning of this time, handaxes were made with exquisite craftsmanship, and eventually gave way to smaller, more diverse toolkits, with an emphasis on One of the main innovations was the application of ‘prepared core technique,’ in which a core was carefully flaked on one side so that for a flake of predetermined size and shape could be produced in a single blow.
G2b is found from the Middle East to Pakistan, and is almost certainly an offshoot of Neolithic farmers from western Iran, where G2b was identified in a 9,250 year-old sample by Broushaki et al. Haplogroup G1 is found predominantly in Iran, but is also found in the Levant, among Ashkenazi Jews, and in Central Asia (notably in Kazakhstan).
G2a makes up 5 to 10% of the population of Mediterranean Europe, but is relatively rare in northern Europe.
These toolkits last until at least 50,000 to 28,000 years ago.
In Africa, the Middle Stone Age toolkits sometimes include blades and other types of archeological evidence (beads and artifacts that indicate the use of color and symbols) that are typical of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.